What are the different types of communication? Explain it Briefly?

1. On the basis of Organizational Framework

  • Formal communication
  • Informal communication

2. On the basis of expression

  • Oral communication
  • Written communication
  • Gestural communication

On the basis of organizational framework

Formal communication

It refers to the flow of messages along with the roots prescribed in the organization structure which flows through a formal channel the formal sandal established by the superior-subordinate relationships in the organization the path of formal communication is determined by creating the formal channels which are associated with the status of the sender and receiver the officially determined parts of communication orderly in nature because the channels of communication and established on the basis of Skeleton authority the formal communication and generally in written form it is mainly used to solve the official problems for example if the branch manager wants to send a message to the chairman of the bank he has to pass his a message through the area manager regional manager and other persons

  1. Upward communication
  2. Downward communication
  3. Horizontal communication
  4. Diagonal communication

Upward communication
It refers to the flow of communication from a subordinate to his superiors in the chain of command it is very important for the top management to know what is happening in the whole organization it provides feedback to the management so the top executive can evaluate his decisions on the basis of information received through upward communication mainly consists of the following information.

  • Performance of the subordinates
  • Problems relating to work
  • Opinions and suggestions of the subordinates
  • Any clarification about policies procedures rules etc.

There is always a danger of distortion in upward communication due to fear of the displeasure of Bose the subordinate also avoid giving true information to the superiors to make up their own image so the superior should analyze the information received through upward communication carefully for decision making

Downward communication
The communication which flows from top to bottom example from superior to subordinate than it is downward communication download communication from the top management Mili provide the information about objective policies programs of the business enterprise the communication from the middle management to lower management mainly consists of Orders instruction rules procedures acceptor in the main modes of downward communication are employee handbook organizational manual house journal annual reports notices memos and committee meeting exact the face-to-face communication is a must in the situation of handling the tender topics the firing of an employee or arbitrating conflict among the worker through it the manager motivate its body needs it is also called downstream communication.

Horizontal communication
It refers to the flow of communication between two-person holding the same position in the organization for example meeting between the marketing manager and production manager is a horizontal communication the overall purpose of horizontal communication is to develop mutual understanding coordination and teamwork among various departments of the organization horizontal communication is an information flow that occurs both within and between department generally it is communication among the equals it is a system that relates to the communication between persons of one Level or of one department no organization can work effectively without such horizontal communication

Diagonal communication
Communication between the persons of different department who are at a different level is known as diagonal communication this type of communication is used only in case of urgency it increases the speed of communication for example a plant manager may communicate with the supervisor of the maintenance department directly in order to get the machine repair without any delay where the diagonal communication has the advantage of speeding up the action there it has a serious drawback also example it violates the principle of unity of command does it mean to let the entire organization to confusion and be wildness does the sender and receiver must take the necessary care at the time of communication diagonally

Characteristic of Formal Communication
  • It is generally in written form
  • It provides accurate information about the organization
  • It routes through escalation authority
  • Proof of receiving information
  • It flows in different direction example upward downward horizontal and diagonal
Advantages of Formal Communication
  • It flows in an orderly manner since it is transmitted in a systematic way
  • It is easy to locate the source of formal communication
  • It is proper and systematic
  • It is useful for exercising his authorities
  • It facilitates exercising control by providing information about work performance
  • It helps in maintaining the secrecy of communication
  • It provides acquired and essential information from the right perspective
  • Helps in establishing contact with distant parties
Disadvantages of Formal Communication
  • It was very slowly since it flows a scalar authority
  • It lacks personal touch as it is transmitted in an impersonal manner
  • It is rigid in nature
  • It overloads the manager with work
  • No free and Frank opinion
  • Greater possibility of Transmission errors
  • Subordinates may not convey true information due to its unfavorable effect

Informal Communication

A Communication which flows independent of the official communication is known as informal communication it is a result of social interaction among the members of the organisation to satisfy the social needs our members in organisation exchange ideas and information among themselves which ultimately attained the shape of informal communication informal communication cuts across the official lines of communication so informal communication may take place among the persons of different departments holding the different positions informal groups exist within the formal organisation therefore the informal and formal communication flow side-by-side the informal communication is much faster than the former it is generally consists of oral messages technically the informal communication is also known as grapevine because it is not possible to trace the origin of the informal communication as in case of Wine Yard a grapevine is structureless and the information flows throw it in all direction so it sometime lead to rumours also in informal communication responsibility cannot be fixed the personal matters are discussed in it.

Features of Informal Communication
  • It spread in all directions
  • It generally consists of verbal
  • It sometimes creates misunderstandings and separate rumors
  • It is unauthentic and unauthorized
  • It encourage the employees friendly relation with their subordinates
  • It may be in a group a private talk or a rumor
Advantages of Informal Communication
  • It fills the gap informal communication
  • It is faster than formal communication
  • It is a good measure of employees reaction responses and
  • It enables management to know about the moral motivation and attitude and reaction of the subordinates
  • It is flexible in nature
  • It develops friendly relations
Disadvantages of Informal Communication
  • It is likely to be distorted as a different person passes the same information with a different version and interpretation
  • The information is incomplete so there are chances of missed understanding and misinterpreting
  • It leads to rumors
  • It is not possible to maintain the secrecy of informal communication
  • It is not reliable and authentic


Oral Communication

Communication which is sent or received by word of mouth is known as oral communication it involved sender and receiver that makes in their views on ideas by the way of face-to-face contact or throw devices like telephone intercom on loudspeaker it is suitable where parties can create direct contact with each other It is mainly used for giving detailed instruction to the subordinate and for clearing the doubt this method of communication is popular at operator level because of workers may not be in a position to understand and interpret the return instructions correctly it is a most appropriate mode of communication for brief messages.

Written Communication

When the message conveyed in a written format it is referred to as written communication these may be in form of letter notice etc this type of communication is indispensable for the functioning of an organization written communication provides a permanent record for future use so its verification is very easy the policies and procedures and conveyed through the written form top management generally transmitted its order through the written communication the supervisor further issue instruction to the worker within the framework of the order of top management the formal messages are generally in written form.

Gestural Communication

Communication through the expression of emotions or body action is known as gestural communication it is useful in conveying the attitudes emotions and feelings a handshake wave of hand pat on the back of the subordinate or blinking of eyes are the important modes of gestural communication the main purpose of gestural communication is to supplement the oral communication actually it is used as an Aid to Oral Communication it makes the face-to-face conversation more Meaningful and Effective

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