Science is a systematized body of knowledge pertaining to a specific field of study. Science is based on logical consistency, systematic application, critical evaluation, and experimental analyses. Thus, science is a body of systematized knowledge accepted with the reference to the understanding of general truth concerning a particular phenomenon subject of study. It establishes the cause and effect relationship between two or more factors.
To be called management a science let us apply features to management:
- Systematized body of Knowledge: management is a systematized body of knowledge. For example, in the area of designing an effective organizational structure, there is a number of principles that serve as guidelines for delegating authority. the unity of command, the congestion si authority, and responsibility are some of the important principles which help decide proper delegation of authority.
- Continued Observation: principles of management have been developed after a continued observation. Knowledge of management is based on tested principles. The principles of management are involved on the basis of observation and repeated experimentation in different types of organizations. Does the management is based upon sound principles and tested theories.
- Management Principles are Universal: management is necessary for business as well as nonbusiness organizations. It is required in developed and backward countries. So, principles of management have universal validity.
- Verifiability of Principles: since some principles of management and practically used in real situations, these can be tested and verified. Many enterprises have tested the effect of workers participation in management. The principles of management can be verified and tested by putting them into practice in real business situations as it happens in case of natural sciences.
- Cause and effect Relationship: management principles establishes relationship between cause and their effect. Principles of management explain the cause effect relationship between different factors. For example motivated employee works more efficiently than an demotivated employee.
- Prediction: Future events can be predicted by applying management principles. But these are not accurate as other natural sciences.
Because principles of management do not give an exact result. So it is possible to repeat the same conditions over and over again which enable the scientist to experiment and to obtain a proof. Human behaviour factors make the management and imperfect science. The principles of management are flexible and can be used with modifications in different situation. So we can say that management is less exact science than natural sciences. So management is known as in exact science.